Spring mineral water might have the properties favourable to health, which should be assessed by clinical and pharmacological analyses. Efforts have recently been made to approach the study of the validity of spring mineral water curative therapies by advanced biochemical research on both animal models and humans. Owing to the paramount interest and the growing recent use of drinking mineral waters, a need for a rigorous scientific approach arises. The therapeutic action of drinking mineral waters has been demonstrated to have important biochemical implications. However, some adverse events during health resorts cure must be considered and investigated. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art on the biochemical studies related to the effects of drinking mineral water. In the light of the review of the literature on the matter, we conclude that further studies are necessary to avoid any possible implication for public health connected with mineral water misuse.