Kidney stones are increasingly common in wealthy industrialized countries. The most frequent form (80%) is idiopathic calcium stone disease. Eating habits and lifestyle have a direct effect on the lithogenic urinary risk factors and the pathogenesis of this condition. A diet characterized by a high intake of fluids, fruits, and vegetables; a low consumption of salt and protein; and a balanced intake of calcium, fats, and carbohydrates constitutes an efficacious approach to the prevention and treatment of this illness. A correct body weight, regular exercise, and a reduction in stressful life events are also useful preventive actions.