Carbon dioxide-enriched water inhalation in patients with allergic rhinitis and its relationship with nasal fluid cytokine/chemokine release

Authors: Pagani D (1) , Galliera E (2) , Dogliotti G (2) , De Bernardi Di Valserra M (3) , Torretta S (1) , Solimene U (2) , Corsi MM (2) , Pignataro L (1)
(1) Department of Special Surgical Sciences, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda-Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan (2) Department of Human Morphology and Biomedical Sciences “Città Studi”, University of Milan (3) Fonti di Rabbi SPA
Source: Arch Med Res. 2011 May;42(4):329-33
DOI: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2011.07.001 Publication date: 2011 May E-Publication date: Not specified Availability: abstract Copyright: © 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Language: English Countries: Italy Location: Fonti di Rabbi Spa Centre (Trento) Correspondence address: Davide Pagani, Dr : Department of Specialist Surgical Sciences, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via F. Sforza 35,20122 Milan, Italy; Phone: +39-02-55032563; FAX: +39-02-55032823. email :


Article abstract


Allergic rhinitis is characterized by eosinophil infiltration and accumulation in the nasal mucosa mainly due to IL-3, IL-5, and eotaxin activities. We undertook this study to investigate a possible in vivo effect of carbon dioxide-enriched water inhalation in patients with allergic rhinitis.


Twenty five consecutive patients inhaled carbon dioxide-enriched water at Fonti di Rabbi Spa Centre (Trento, Italy). Symptom scores for nasal obstruction, itching and sneezing were obtained before and after treatment. Nasal lavage was collected, and IL-3, IL-5, and eotaxin levels were assessed using the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Cytometric analysis was performed on samples to measure total cell count, CD45+ cells, and percentages of polymorphonucleates and lymphocytes.


There were statistically significant differences in chemokine levels and in cell populations between patients and healthy controls before treatment. After carbon dioxide-enriched water inhalation, we observed statistically significant improvements in symptom scores, chemokine levels, and percentages of cell populations.


Our results seem to confirm the role of IL-3, IL-5, and eotaxin in the pathophysiology of allergy and the beneficial effect of carbon dioxide-enriched water inhalation in patients affected by allergic rhinitis.

Find it online