Sympathetic nerve activation is recognized at the adipose tissue level during cold exposure. Adiponectin is a key protein produced by adipose tissue, but its acute modulation remains unknown in humans exposed to cold. The aim of this study were (1) to examine the acute effects of cold exposure on circulating adiponectin and (2) to determine whether the changes are modulated by (a) an acute glucose ingestion as well as (b) a short-term modulation in carbohydrate (CHO) availability. Using a random crossover design, 6 healthy men were exposed to cold for 120 minutes with ingestion of beverages containing low (Control, 0.04 g/min) or high (High, 0.8 g/min) amounts of glucose during the course of the experiment (study 1). In study 2, 6 healthy men were exposed twice to cold for 120 minutes after equicaloric low-CHO diet and exercise and high-CHO diet without exercise. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were quantified before and during cold exposure. In study 1, adiponectin levels did not change during High, whereas a 20% rise was observed during Control (condition x time interaction, P = .06). In study 2, adiponectin levels increased by approximately 70% during cold exposure after both low- and high-CHO diets (effect of time, P < .05). A 120-minute period of cold exposure is accompanied by a significant increase in adiponectin levels in young healthy men. The rise in adiponectin levels observed during shivering is inhibited with glucose ingestion but not after diets varying in CHO content.