Many postmenopausal women have a calcium intake far below the recommended amount and, in addition to attempting to improve their diet, need a calcium supplement. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of the consumption of a high calcium mineral water (HCaMW) on biochemical indices of bone remodeling in postmenopausal women with low Ca intake. A 6-month randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was designed to assess the effects of a daily consumption of 1 liter of a HCaMW (596 mg Ca/l) on serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and biochemical markers of bone remodeling in postmenopausal women with a dietary Ca intake lower than 700 mg/day. The placebo group drank 1 liter of a mineral water with a low calcium content (10 mg/l). One hundred eighty healthy women were recruited (mean age: 70.1+/-4.0 years); 152 completed the 6-month trial. The changes from baseline of biochemical indices after 6 months consisted of a significant 14.1% decrease of serum PTH, osteocalcin (-8.6%), bone alkaline phosphatase (-11.5%), serum (-16.3%) and urine (-13.0%) type-1 collagen C-telopeptide in the HCaMW group compared to the placebo group, where all biochemical indices increased after 6 months. The additive effect of a small vitamin D supplement (400 iu/day) was also evaluated. In women receiving vitamin D in addition to HCaMW, the decrease in bone indices was not found to be greater than in women drinking only the HCaMW. A daily supplement of 596 mg of Ca through the consumption of 1 l of HCaMW was able to lower serum PTH and the indices of bone turnover in postmenopausal women with a low Ca intake. This could contribute to the repair of calcium deficiency and to the reduction of age-related bone loss in this population.