The existing relationship linking thermal and sport medicine has developed with time. This is shown by the established beneficial effects of thermal treatments (mineral waters, mud baths, balneotherapy, aerosol applications) in a wide range of sport and non-sport related injuries. The muscle fatigue syndrome is a condition particularly worrisome for sports practising individuals. This condition impairs the cardiovascular system, as well as hematologic, renal and gastrointestinal functions, acting via biochemical and metabolic modifications of the organism, which have effects also on the psyche of the subject. The treatment of this syndrome includes the use of specific mineral waters, which underscores that the correct hydration of the organisms is a precondition to achieve high performance levels. Traumas involving muscles and skeletal segments, and precocious arthrosis occur with higher frequency in sportsmen after continuous and intense stresses. Within the scope of rheumatology, mud-baths and balneotherapy have curative and rehabilitative potentials leading to a reduction, and often a disappearance, of pain with a faster recovery of the locomotory system. The gastrointestinal system is a target of psychic as well as physical stresses displaying symptoms or diseases which may be favourably addressed with the aid of mineral waters. This treatment has proved effective in secretory and motility dysfunctions of the biliary tree allowing a rapid functional recovery. Mineral water treatments are successfully employed in the treatment of urologic disturbance and ORL and dermatological pathologies, where local applications such as mud baths, balneotherapy, showers and aerosols, play a critical role.