Effect of immersion in CO2-enriched water on free radical release and total antioxidant status in peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

Authors: Dogliotti G (1) , Galliera E (1) , Iorio E (2) , De Bernardi Di Valserra M (3) , Solimene U (1,4) , Corsi MM (1,5)
(1) Department of Human Morphology and Biomedical Sciences “Città Studi”, University of Milan (2) International Observatory for Oxidative Stress, Salerno (3) Rabbi Fonti (4) Bioclimatology Study Center, University of Milan (5) Operative Unit of Clinical Pathology, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato
Source: Int Angiol. 2011 Feb;30(1):12-7.
DOI: Not specified Publication date: 2011 Feb E-Publication date: Not specified Availability: abstract Copyright: Not specified
Language: English Countries: Not specified Location: Not specified Correspondence address: Prof. M.M.Corsi, MD PhD,
Chair of Clinical Pathology, Medical Faculty, University of Milan, Via Luigi Mangiagalli 31, 20133 Milan, Italy,
Fax 390250315338,


Article abstract


The aim of this paper was to investigate the release of oxygen free radicals in patients with peripheral occlusive arterial disease and the effects of immersion of the legs and feet in carbon dioxide (CO(2))-enriched water.


Twenty-five patients with peripheral occlusive arterial disease (Fontaine stage II) and 15 healthy controls were treated by immersing the lower legs in either CO(2)-enriched or normal spa water. Blood samples were collected in heparinized tubes and total antioxidant status (TAS) and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) were measured after five treatments a week for two weeks.


d-ROM plasma levels decreased in patients with peripheral occlusive disease after immersion in CO(2)-enriched water (P<0.001), and in healthy controls (P<0.01), in line with a significant increase in TAS (P<0.001).


CO(2)-enriched water immersion had a positive effect, reducing free radical plasma levels and raising the levels of antioxidants, suggesting an improvement in the microcirculation.

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